Program for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Studies

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PTSD Treatment 

  1. Jayasinghe, N, Finkelstein-Fox, L, Sar-Graycar L, Ojie, M, Bruce, M, Difede, J: Systematic Review of the Clinical Application of Exposure Techniques to Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Anxiety, 2017.
  2. Olden, M., Shingleton, R., Finkelstein-Fox, L., Peskin, M., Ovalles, A., Rabinowitz, T., Difede, J.Telemedicine Exposure Therapy and Assessment for PTSD: A Systematic Clinical Practice Narrative Review. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, 1, 22-31, 2017. 
  3. Olden, M., Wyka, K., Cukor, J., Peskin, M., Altemus, M., Lee, F.S., Finkelstein-Fox, L., Rabinowitz, T.,Difede J. (2017). Pilot Study of a Telehealth-Delivered Medication-Augmented Exposure Therapy Protocol for PTSD.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 205, 154-160.
  4. Reger, G. M., Koenen-Woods, P., Zetocha, K., Smolenski, D. J., Holloway, K. M., Rothbaum, B. O., Difede, J., Rizzo, A. A., Edwards-Stewart, A., Skopp, N., Mishkind, M., Reger, M. A., & Gahm, G. A.  Randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure using imaginal exposure vs. virtual reality exposure in active duty soldiers with deployment-related PTSD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2016. 
  5. Jayasinghe N, Moallem I, Wyka K, Bruce M, Difede J. Addressing Anxiety With Exposure-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Relaxation Training in Older Adults after Medical Falls. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 23(3): S152, 2015.
  6. Jayasinghe N, Sparks MA, Kato K, Wilbur K, Ganz SB, Chiaramonte GR, Stevens BL, Barie PS, Lachs MS, O'Dell M, Evans AT, Bruce ML, Difede J. Exposure-based CBT for older adults after fall injury: Description of a manualized, time-limited intervention for anxiety. Cognitive Behavioral Practice, 21(4): 432-445, 2014.
  7. Difede J, Olden M, Cukor J. Evidence-based treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Annual Review of Medicine, 65: 319-332, 2014.
  8. Difede J, Cukor J, Wyka K, Olden M, Hoffman H, Lee FS, Altemus M. D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(5): 1052-8, 2014.
  9. Cukor J, Difede J. Review: psychotherapy, somatic therapy, and pharmacotherapy are all more effective than control for the treatment of PTSD. Evidence Based Mental Health, 17(1): 7, 2014.
  10. Cukor J, Olden M, Lee FS, Difede J: Evidence-based treatments for PTSD, new directions, and special challenges. Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 1208: 82-89, 2010.
  11. Rizzo AA, Difede J, Rothbaum BO, Johnston S, McLay RN, Reger G, Gahm G, Parsons T, Graap K, Pair J: VR PTSD Exposure Therapy Results with Active Duty OIF/OEF Combatants. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics,142: 277-282, 2009.
  12. Difede J, Cukor J, Lee F, Yurt R: Treatments for common psychiatric conditions among adults during acute, rehabilitation, and reintegration phases. International Review of Psychiatry, 21(6): 559-569, 2009.

Combat-Related PTSD

  1. Reger, G. M., Koenen-Woods, P., Zetocha, K., Smolenski, D. J., Holloway, K. M., Rothbaum, B. O., Difede, J., Rizzo, A. A., Edwards-Stewart, A., Skopp, N., Mishkind, M., Reger, M. A., & Gahm, G. A.  Randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure using imaginal exposure vs. virtual reality exposure in active duty soldiers with deployment-related PTSD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2016. 
  2. Rizzo A, Cukor J, Gerardi M, Alley S, Reist C, Roy M, Rothbaum BO, Difede J. Virtual Reality Exposure for PTSD Due to Military Combat and Terrorist Attacks. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 2015.
  3. Rizzo A, Hartholt A, Rothbaum B, Difede J, Reist C, Kwok D, Leeds A, Spitalnick J, Talbot T, Adamson T, Buckwalter JG. Expansion of a VR Exposure Therapy System for Combat-Related PTSD to Medics/Corpsman and Persons Following Military Sexual Trauma. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 196: 332-8, 2014.
  4. McLay RN, Graap K, Spira J, Perlman K, Johnston S, Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Deal W, Oliver D, Baird A, Bordnick PS, Spitalnick J, Pyne JM, Rizzo A. Development and testing of virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 177(6): 635-642, 2012.
  5. Reger G, Holloway K, Candy C, Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Rizzo A, Gahm G. Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Active Duty Soldiers in a Military Mental Health Clinic. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(1): 93-96, 2011.
  6. Difede J, Barchas JD: Psychiatric and neurologic aspects of war: An overview and perspective. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1208: 1-9, 2010.
  7. Rizzo A, Difede J, Rothbaum BO, Reger G, Spitalnick J, Cukor J, Mclay R. Development and early evaluation of the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system for combat-related PTSD. Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 1208: 114-125, 2010.
  8. Rothbaum BO, Rizzo A, Difede J. Virtual reality exposure therapy for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1208: 126-132, 2010.
  9. Rizzo AA, Difede J, Rothbaum BO, Johnston S, McLay RN, Reger G, Gahm G, Parsons T, Graap K, Pair J: VR PTSD Exposure Therapy Results with Active Duty OIF/OEF Combatants. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics,142: 277-282, 2009.
  10. Difede J, Cukor J, Lee F, Yurt R: Treatments for common psychiatric conditions among adults during acute, rehabilitation, and reintegration phases. International Review of Psychiatry, 21(6): 559-569, 2009.
  11. Rizzo AA, Graap K, Perlman K, McLay RN, Rothbaum BO, Reger G, Parsons T, Difede J, Pair J: Virtual Iraq: Initial results from a VR exposure therapy application for combat-related PTSD. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics, 132: 420-425, 2008.

Virtual Reality 

  1. Reger, G. M., Koenen-Woods, P., Zetocha, K., Smolenski, D. J., Holloway, K. M., Rothbaum, B. O., Difede, J., Rizzo, A. A., Edwards-Stewart, A., Skopp, N., Mishkind, M., Reger, M. A., & Gahm, G. A.  Randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure using imaginal exposure vs. virtual reality exposure in active duty soldiers with deployment-related PTSD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2016. 
  2. Rizzo A, Cukor J, Gerardi M, Alley S, Reist C, Roy M, Rothbaum BO, Difede J. Virtual Reality Exposure for PTSD Due to Military Combat and Terrorist Attacks. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 2015.
  3. Rizzo A, Hartholt A, Rothbaum B, Difede J, Reist C, Kwok D, Leeds A, Spitalnick J, Talbot T, Adamson T, Buckwalter JG. Expansion of a VR Exposure Therapy System for Combat-Related PTSD to Medics/Corpsman and Persons Following Military Sexual Trauma. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 196: 332-8, 2014.
  4. Rizzo A, Buckwalter G, Forbell E, Reist C, Difede J, Rothbaum B, Lange B, Koenig S, Talbot T. Virtual Reality Applications to Address the Wounds of War. Psychiatric Annals, 43(3): 123-138, 2013.
  5. McLay RN, Graap K, Spira J, Perlman K, Johnston S, Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Deal W, Oliver D, Baird A, Bordnick PS, Spitalnick J, Pyne JM, Rizzo A. Development and testing of virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 177(6): 635-642, 2012.
  6. Reger G, Holloway K, Candy C, Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Rizzo A, Gahm G. Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Active Duty Soldiers in a Military Mental Health Clinic. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(1): 93-96, 2011.
  7. Rizzo A, Difede J, Rothbaum BO, Reger G, Spitalnick J, Cukor J, Mclay R. Development and early evaluation of the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system for combat-related PTSD. Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 1208: 114-125, 2010.
  8. Rothbaum BO, Rizzo A, Difede J. Virtual reality exposure therapy for a combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1208: 126-132, 2010.
  9. Olden M, Cukor J, Rizzo S, Rothbaum BO, Difede J: House Calls Revisited: Leveraging Technology to Overcome Obstacles to Psychiatric Care and Improve Treatment Outcomes. Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 1208: 133-141, 2010.
  10. Gerardi M, Cukor J, Difede J, Rizzo A, Rothbaum BO: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12: 298-305, 2010.
  11. Cukor J, Spitalnick J, Difede J, Rizzo A, Rotbaum BO: Emerging Treatments for PTSD. Clinical Psychology Review: Special Issue: PTSD, Iraq, & Afghanistan. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(8): 715-726, 2009.
  12. Kenny PG, Parsons TD, Rothbaum B, Difede J, Reger G, Rizzo A. Optimizing Clinical Training for the Treatment of PTSD Using Virtual Patients. Annual Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine: Advanced Technologies in the Behavioral Social and Neurosciences, 7: 264-268, 2009.
  13. Rizzo AA, Reger G, Difede J, Rothbaum BO, Mclay RN, Holloway K, Graap K, Newman B, Spitalnick J, Bordnick P, Johnston S, Parsons T, Gahm G. (2009). Development and Clinical Results from the Virtual Iraq Exposure Therapy Application for PTSD, IEEE Explore: Virtual Rehabilitation 2009.
  14. Rizzo AA, Graap K, Perlman K, McLay RN, Rothbaum BO, Reger G, Parsons T, Difede J, Pair J: Virtual Iraq: Initial results from a VR exposure therapy application for combat-related PTSD. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics, 132: 420-425, 2008.
  15. Difede J, Cukor J, Jayasinghe N, Patt I, Jedel S, Giosan C, & Hoffman H. Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following September 11, 2001. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68: 1639-1647, 2007.
  16. Difede J, Cukor J, Patt I, Giosan C, Hoffman H. The application of virtual reality to the treatment of PTSD following the WTC attack. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1071: 500-501, 2006.
  17. Difede J, Hoffman H: Virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD following the WTC: A case report. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 5(6): 529-535, 2002.
  18. Difede J, Hoffman H, Jayasinghe N: Multimedia Reviews: Innovative use of virtual reality technology in the treatment of PTSD in the aftermath of September 11. Psychiatric Services, 53(9): 1083-1085, 2002.

World Trade Center 

  1. Giosan C, Malta LS, Wyka K, Jayasinghe N, Evans S, Difede J, Avram E. Sleep Disturbance, Disability and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Utility Workers. J Clin Psychol, 71(1): 72-84, 2015.
  2. Giosan C, Malta LS, Wyka K, Jayasinghe N, Evans S, Difede J, Avram E. Sleep Disturbance, Disability and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Utility Workers. Journal of Clinical Psychology: 71(1): 72-84, 2014.
  3. Cukor J, Wyka K, Mello B, Olden M, Jayasinghe N, Roberts J, Giosan C, Crane M, Difede J. The longitudinal course of PTSD among disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center following the attacks of September 11th. Special Issue: The September 11th 2001 Terrorist Attacks: Ten Years After. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(5): 506-514, 2011.
  4. Cukor J, Wyka K, Jayasinghe N, Weathers F, Giosan C, Leck P, Roberts J, Spielman L, Crane M, Difede J. Prevalence and Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Utility Workers Deployed to the World Trade Center Following the Attacks of September 11, 2001. Depression and Anxiety, 28(3): 210-217, 2011.
  5. Cukor J, Wyka K, Jayasinghe N, Difede J. The nature and course of subthreshold PTSD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(8): 918-23, 2010.
  6. Evans S, Patt I, Giosan C, Spielman L, Difede J: Disability and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Disaster Relief Workers Responding to September 11, 2001 World Trade Center Disaster. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(7): 1-11, 2009.
  7. Giosan C, Malta L, Jayasinghe N, Spielman L, Difede J: Relationships between memory inconsistency for traumatic events following 9/11 and PTSD in disaster restoration workers. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(4): 557-561.
  8. Malta LS, Wyka KE, Giosan C, Jayasinghe N, Difede J: Numbing Symptoms as Predictors of Unremitting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(2): 223-229, 2009.*
  9. Jayasinghe N, Giosan C, Evans S, Spielman L, Difede J: Anger and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers exposed to the 9/11/01 World Trade Center Disaster: One-year follow-up study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(11): 844-846, 2008.
  10. Difede J, Malta LS, Best S, Henn-Haase C, Metzler T, Marmar C: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Treatment Trial for WTC-Related PTSD in Disaster Workers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(10): 861-865, 2007.
  11. Difede J, Cukor J, Jayasinghe N, Patt I, Jedel S, Giosan C, & Hoffman H. Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following September 11, 2001. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68: 1639-1647, 2007.
  12. Difede J, Cukor J, Patt I, Giosan C, Hoffman H. The application of virtual reality to the treatment of PTSD following the WTC attack. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1071: 500-501, 2006.
  13. Jayasinghe N, Giosan C, Difede J, Spielman L, Robin L: Predictors of Responses to Psychotherapy Referral of WTC Utility Disaster Workers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(2): 307-312, 2006.
  14. Evans S, Giosan C, Patt I, Spielman L, Difede J: Anger and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Disaster Relief Workers Responding to the September 11th, 2001 World Trade Center Disaster. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(1): 147-152, 2006.
  15. Jayasinghe N, Difede J, Cancellare D, Klausner E, Spielman L, Giosan C: Predictors of treatment utilization in World Trade Center attack disaster workers: Role of race/ethnicity and symptom severity. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 7: 91-100, 2005.
  16. Difede J, Hoffman H: Virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD following the WTC: A case report. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 5(6): 529-535, 2002.
  17. Difede J, Hoffman H, Jayasinghe N: Multimedia Reviews: Innovative use of virtual reality technology in the treatment of PTSD in the aftermath of September 11. Psychiatric Services, 53(9): 1083-1085, 2002.
  18. Difede J, Eskra D: Adaptation of Cognitive Processing Therapy for the Treatment of PTSD following terrorism: A case study of a World Trade Center [1993] survivor. Journal of Trauma Practice, 1(3/4): 155-165, 2002.

Burns

  1. McAleavey, A. A., Wyka, K., Peskin, M., & Difede, J. Physical, functional, and psychosocial recovery from burn injury are related and their relationship changes over time: A Burn Model System study. Burns, 2018.
  2. Cukor J, Wyka K, Leahy N, Yurt R, Difede J. The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and related psychosocial consequences of burn injury: A pilot study. J Burn Care Res, 36(1): 184-192, 2015.
  3. Lambert JF, Difede J, Contrada RC: The relationship of attribution of responsibility to acute stress disorder among hospitalized burn patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(4): 304-312, 2004.

Book Chapters

  1. Rizzo A, Difede J, Rothbaum BO, Buckwalter JG, Daughtry JM, Reger GM. Update and Expansion of the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan PTSD Exposure Therapy System. In Safir, M.P., Wallach, H.S., Rizzo, A. (eds.) Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, 303-328. New York: Springer, 2015.
  2. Olden M., Mello B., Cukor J., Wyka K., Jayasinghe N., Difede J. Implementation of Evidence-Based Assessment, Treatment, and Research Programs Following the World Trade Center Disaster on September 11, 2001. In Safir, M.P., Wallach, H.S., Rizzo, A. (eds.) Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, 367-387. New York: Springer, 2015.
  3. Leaman S, Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Cukor J, Gerardi M, Rizzo A. Treating Combat-Related PTSD With Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. In A. Rubin, E. L. Weiss, & J. E. Coll (Eds.), Handbook of Military Social Work, 113-140. John Wiley and Sons, 2012.
  4. Roy MJ, Rizzo A, Difede J, Rothbaum BO. Emerging and Alternative Therapies for PTSD. In D. Benedek, G. H. Wynn (Eds.), Clinical Manual for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2010.
  5. Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Rizzo AA. Therapist Treatment Manual for Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder In Iraq Combat Veterans, Geneva Foundation, 2009.
  6. Roy MJ, Rizzo A, Difede J, Rothbaum BO: Emerging and Alternative Therapies for PTSD.
  7. In D. Benedek, G. H. Wynn (Eds.), Clinical Manual for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc, 2011.
  8. Rizzo AA, Difede J, Rothbaum BO, Johnston S, Mclay RN, Reger G, Gahm G, Parsons T, Graap K, Pair J. VR PTSD Exposure Therapy Results with Active Duty Iraq War Combatants. In J.D. Westwood et al. (Eds.), Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 142, 277-282. Amsterdam, NL: IOS Press, 2009.
  9. Difede J, Cukor J: Evidence based long-term treatment of mental health consequences of disasters among adults. In Y. Neria, S. Galea, F. Norris (Eds.), Mental Health Consequences of Disaster. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  10. Rizzo A, Gahm G, Reger G, Difede J, Rothbaum B: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Combat-related PTSD. In P. Shiromani, T. Keane, & J. LeDoux (Eds.), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Basic Science and
  11. Rizzo A, Gahm G, Reger G, Difede J, Rothbaum B: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Combat-related PTSD. In P. Shiromani, T. Keane, & J. LeDoux (Eds.), Neurobiology of PTSD. New Jersey: Humana Press, 2009.
  12. Difede J, Roberts J, Jayasinghe N, Leck P: Evaluation and treatment of emergency services personnel following the World Trade Center attack. In Y. Neria, R. Gross, R. Marshall, & E. Susser (Eds.), September 11, 2001: Treatment, Research and Public Mental Health in the Wake of a Terrorist Attack. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  13. Difede J, Cukor J, Jayasinghe N, Hoffman, H: Developing a virtual reality treatment protocol for posttraumatic stress disorder following the World Trade Center attack. In Ray, MJ (Ed.) NATO Security through Science: Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of PTSD. IDS Press, 2006.
  14. Difede J: Acute psychiatric responses to the explosion at the World Trade Center: A case series. In Kushner H (Ed.), Essential readings on political terrorism: analyses of problems and prospects for the 21st century. New York: Gordian Knot Books, 2002.

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